March 26, 2023

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.
Nature Medicine (2022)
298 Accesses
10 Altmetric
Metrics details
The ethical impact of AI algorithms in healthcare should be assessed at each phase, from data creation to model deployment, so that their use narrows rather than widens inequalities.
Artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to revolutionize many aspects of clinical care, but it can also lead to patient and community harm, the misallocation of health resources and the exacerbation of existing health inequities, which greatly threaten its overall efficacy and social impact1. These issues have prompted the movement toward ethical AI, a field devoted to raising and addressing ethical issues related to the development and application of AI.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Subscribe to Nature+
Get immediate online access to the entire Nature family of 50+ journals

Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $8.25 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Challen, R. et al. BMJ Qual. Saf. 28, 231–237 (2019).
Article  Google Scholar 
Goldstein, B. A., Navar, A. M., Pencina, M. J. & Ioannidis, J. P. A. J. Am. Med. Inform. Assoc. 24, 198–208 (2017).
Article  Google Scholar 
Bozkurt, S. et al. J. Am. Med. Inform. Assoc. 27, 1878–1884 (2020).
Article  Google Scholar 
Gordon, M. L. et al. Preprint at (2022)
Corbett-Davies S. & Goel S. Preprint at (2018).
Pfohl, S. R., Foryciarz, A. & Shah, N. H. J. Biomed. Inform. 113, 103621 (2021).
Article  Google Scholar 
Röösli, E., Bozkurt, S. & Hernandez-Boussard, T. Sci. Data. 9, 24 (2022).
Article  Google Scholar 
Futoma, J. et al. Lancet Digit. Health. 2, e489–e492 (2020).
Article  Google Scholar 
Obermeyer, Z., Powers, B., Vogeli, C. & Science 366, 447–453 (2019).
Sujan, M. et al. BMJ Health Care Inform. 26, e100081 (2019).
Article  Google Scholar 
Nsoesie, E. O. JAMA Netw. Open 1, e182658 (2018).
Article  Google Scholar 
Download references
Research reported in this publication was supported by the Agency for Health Research & Quality under award no. R01HS027434; the Ethics, Society, and Technology Hub at Stanford University; and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation under grant number 10848 The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the funders.
These authors contributed equally: Madelena Y. Ng, Supriya Kapur.
Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
Madelena Y. Ng & Tina Hernandez-Boussard
All of Us Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
Supriya Kapur & Katherine D. Blizinsky
You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar
You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar
You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar
You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar
T.H.B. and K.D.B. conceptualized the Comment, M.Y.N. and S.K. wrote the initial draft and contributed equally, and all authors edited and critically revised the final manuscript.
Correspondence to Tina Hernandez-Boussard.
The authors declare no competing interests.
Reprints and Permissions
Ng, M.Y., Kapur, S., Blizinsky, K.D. et al. The AI life cycle: a holistic approach to creating ethical AI for health decisions. Nat Med (2022).
Download citation
Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:
Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.

Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative

Nature Medicine (Nat Med) ISSN 1546-170X (online) ISSN 1078-8956 (print)
© 2022 Springer Nature Limited
Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.


Leave a Reply