September 26, 2022

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Stacey Colino,
When it comes to exercising, many people have an all-or-nothing mentality — devote at least 45 minutes to an aerobic or strength-training workout or bust. That’s a mistake because new research has found that intermittent workouts — short bouts of exercise performed throughout the day — have significant health benefits and they can be easily and conveniently incorporated into your schedule. As an added perk, these mini workouts — which can be just three minutes each — may be the antidote to the sedentary lifestyle that has increasingly taken root during the pandemic.
“If you go to the gym for an hour three times per week but you don’t do what you should do after that, it’s not as effective as you think — it won’t undo a sedentary lifestyle,” says Tom Holland, an exercise physiologist in Darien, Connecticut, and author of The Micro-Workout Plan: Get the Body You Want Without the Gym in 15 Minutes or Less a Day. “It’s more the aggregate of what you do than the duration of each workout. Most people do a lot of exercise a little bit — the key is to do a little exercise a lot.”
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In fact, research shows that people who accumulate more than 150 minutes of exercise per week, with multiple bouts per day, experience a greater reduction in body fat and LDL cholesterol than those who do 150 minutes per week with single, continuous exercise sessions per day.
What’s more, a study in a 2022 issue of Sports Medicine – Open found that performing five or more accumulated bouts of low-to-moderate exercise, ranging from one to six minutes each, throughout the day produced greater glucose control after meals in adults without diabetes, compared with a single, extended bout of exercise. And a small study in a 2020 issue of The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences & Medical Sciences found that breaking up periods of sitting with five minutes of light walking every 30 minutes lowered post-meal insulin and blood pressure among older adults. This led the researchers to conclude that breaking up prolonged periods of sitting with intermittent bouts of movement leads to “meaningful improvements in markers of metabolic health in older adults.”
“Intermittent exercise is also helpful for people with bad backs or other chronic injuries or pain,” says Rachel Trotta, a certified personal trainer based in Red Bank, New Jersey. “Multiple shorter bouts of exercise reduce pain symptoms, whereas a longer cardio session could irritate it.” 
In addition, a short exercise stint can boost your mood and alertness. A study in a 2016 issue of the journal Stress and Health found that when office-based employees boxed for three minutes they gained a boost in cognitive performance. Meanwhile, another study in a 2016 issue of the International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity found that when sedentary adults did six hourly five-minute “microbouts” of moderate-intensity walking on a treadmill, their self-perceived levels of energy and vigor increased compared with six hours of uninterrupted sitting. What’s more, the mini exercise sessions improved their mood, decreased their level of fatigue, and reduced their food cravings at the end of the day, compared with nonstop sitting. 
There’s an additional sneaky perk to intermittent exercise in terms of building fitness and conditioning: what’s often called the aftereffect. When you exercise for any length of time, your heart beats more strongly, your blood flow and breathing rate increase, and cellular activity changes, notes David Katz, past president of the American College of Lifestyle Medicine and author of Disease-Proof: The Remarkable Truth About What Makes Us Well. “When exertion stops, these effects don’t return immediately to baseline. There is a slow return to baseline, meaning that the effects of exercise on the body continue after exercise stops.”
When you perform short bouts of physical activity throughout the day, “each one of those sessions has a ‘long tail’ of residual benefit during the recovery period,” Katz adds. Which means that with intermittent workouts not only are the effects of exercise sparked more times during the day but so are the aftereffects as your body recovers after each one.
One of the beauties of intermittent workouts is that there’s no right or wrong way to do them. Depending on your preference, you could do one exercise at a time or a few, using your own body weight or dumbbells, or you could simply go for a short walk or climb stairs. You could set a timer for every hour (especially if you’re working at a desk) or use a real-life moment (such as before a meal or after completing a task) as a prompt to get moving for three to five minutes. “Break it up any way you want, depending on your mood and your time available — and do it throughout the day,” Holland says. “The point is: minutes matter.”
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“Intermittent exercise is a realistic way to move more — it’s psychologically more manageable because it lowers the bar on the commitment,” notes Rachel Trotta, a certified personal trainer based in Red Bank, New Jersey. “It’s all about reducing sedentary time and increasing active time.”
Rather than doing the same moves during each bout, it’s better to choose a mix of cardio and strength-training exercises that target different parts of your body. The goal is to have these mini-workouts add up to 30 minutes per day at least five times per week, Trotta says. Before you start any new exercise, be sure to check in with your doctor or health care provider to make sure they are safe for you. Here are some examples of workouts you can do in five minutes:
Run or jog in place for 1 minute.
Do jumping jacks for 30 seconds.
Do mountain-climbers or burpees for 1 minute.
Repeat.
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Squats for 30 seconds
Alternating forward lunges for 1 minute
Standing calf raises for 30 seconds
Step-ups for 30 seconds
Repeat.
Push-ups (on knees or toes) for 30 seconds
Biceps curls with dumbbells for 30 seconds
Shoulder press with dumbbells for 30 seconds
Rows with dumbbells for 30 seconds
Triceps kickbacks with dumbbells for 30 seconds
Repeat.
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Straight arm plank for 30 seconds
Side plank for 30 seconds on each side
Bird-dog for 30 seconds
Bicycle crunch for 30 seconds
Repeat.
Wall sits for 30 seconds
Wall push-ups for 30 seconds
Sit-to-stand from chair (without using hands) for 30 seconds
Seated torso twists, holding a ball or dumbbell in front of you, for 30 seconds
Repeat.
By mixing and matching these brief workouts, “you can check all the [fitness] boxes in one day,” Holland says. The key is to find natural breaks in your day and patterns of mini-workouts that work for you. “Think of this as running an experiment for two weeks then consider what you need to tinker with or change and do it for another two weeks,” Trotta suggests. “Once you do that, you’re already in the zone where habit formation takes place.”
Work these 10-minute Denise Austin videos into your day:
Stacey Colino is an award-winning writer, specializing in health, psychology and science. Her work has appeared in The Washington Post, U.S. News & World Report, Prevention, Newsweek, Parade and many other national magazines.​​
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